Piranshahr was formerly known as Khaneh and due to the tribe of Piran who had their settlement within these limits, which was later on changes to Piran Shahr (the city of Pirans). Its capital city is Piran Shahr. Piran Shahr is on the border towns between Iran and Iraq, and the high mountains of Siyah Kooh and Shiphan lie respectively to the northwest and south. The River Zaab takes its source in these mountains.
The history of Piranshahr can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period. In recent discoveries, archeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages.The earliest evidence of settlement in the Piranshar region date to about 14,000 years ago.
There have been recovered more than 200 sites in Piranshahr.
The city of Piranshahr is a very ancient settlement. Its locale was the capital of some ancient Aryan civilizations such as Mehr, Parsua and the kingdoms of the Mannaeans.
According to Minorsky, the ancient Parsua is identical with the name of the town Pasveh, which is located in Lajan district (Bakhsh) in Piranshahr. According to Minorsky, The name Persian is connected to the name of Parsua and Pasva and it is believed that the present day Persians (Persian speakers of Iran) dwelled in this district before later migrating to southern and central parts of Iran.
Pasveh is in the vicinity of Piranshahr. Pasva is a village near Piranshahr whose name, according to the Iranist Vladimir Minorsky has existed since the 9th century BC and was built by the "Parsua tribes". It was also mentioned in the records of the Assyrian ruler Shalmaneser III (reign 858-824 BC)