Esfarayen is located in the north west of NORTH KHORASAN province and is about 772 km. from Tehran. A part of this town is situated on the slopes of Shah Jahan Mountains and the other part in the plains. The town experiences cold weather. Esfarayen was one of the focal points where the Aryan tribes settled after entering Iran during the Parthian period.
Esfarayen was then one of the important villages of Nayshabur. Even after the Arabs gained control, Esfarayen flourished and continued to be so after Islam. In spite of attacks, it was reconstructed. In the late 8th century AH, this city was ruined during the Teimoorian attack. During the Safavid era the town was attacked by the Ozbek tribes.
In the Afshar period the old city of Esfarayen was completely destroyed thereby compelling the inhabitants to reside in the present city of Esfarayen, or as it came to be known.